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By Walter Rüegg

Through targeting the liberty of medical study, instructing and learn, the medieval collage constitution was once modernized and enabled discoveries to turn into a qualified, bureaucratically-regulated task of the collage. This opened the way in which for the successful march of the ordinary sciences, and resulted in scholar movements--resulting within the collage being finally solid within the position of a fortress of political fight in a world-wide struggle for freedom. additionally to be had: quantity 1: Universities within the center a long time 0-521-36105-2 Hardback $140.00 C quantity 2: Universities in Early sleek Europe (1500-1800) 0-521-36106-0 Hardback $130.00 C

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Extra resources for A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, Universities the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800-1945) (A History of the University in Europe)

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The various chapters of our History of the University in Europe give many examples, but there is still much work to be done in order to arrive at a complete picture. It will also be necessary to study more closely the role that the various actors played in this process: the ministries, often guided or advised by academics, the university institutions themselves, the student and teaching organizations, individual pioneers, the pressures and initiatives of different social groups, etc. 24 25 26 R.

39 This letter is interesting for the self-confidence with which the young professor presented himself to his superior – an attitude that would later ¨ prove to be justified, since, thanks to Muller, Berlin became a European centre for comparative anatomy. Even more interesting is his repeated reference to the importance of a great university institute for the ‘spirit’ in which medical problems could be systematically and collectively investigated in connection with the natural sciences. To obtain funds for such an institute it was necessary to gain the support of the authorities in Berlin – the King, his Ministers, and his private councillors, among whom was Alexander von Humboldt, who had moved back to Berlin from Paris in 1827.

Thus Flemish students struggled for years to obtain the right to have lessons in their own language. But these were only avant-garde confrontations in the fight for the cultural and political emancipation of Flanders as a whole. The student movement was not limited to equal language rights in the realm of study, it 52 See chapter 8, also for the following, in as much as it is not referred to elsewhere. 24 Themes also waged a battle to make Flemish the only official language of Flanders and thus bring about political liberation from French Walloon domination.

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