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By William Swainson

William Swainson F. R. S., used to be known mostly as a zoologist, an ornithologist and a talented and prolific illustrator. He additionally had a massive enthusiasm for looking and settling on new species. during this 1834 quantity although, Swainson addressed the character of, foundations for and profitable pursuit of zoology. It argues firmly for the most important significance of taxonomy. Swainson used to be an ardent recommend of MacLeay's now fullyyt outdated 'quinary' approach of type - even then a exceedingly minority view. This sought affinities, styles and analogies between organisms, with a view to determine God's order. greater than a trifling interest, such paintings was once of pivotal obstacle to enterprising naturalists of the 1820s and 1830s - together with the younger Charles Darwin. It additionally reached Robert Chambers, whose 1844 Vestiges of the average historical past of construction used to be an incredible landmark within the improvement of the idea of evolution.

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In Latin and German. ) Icones Insectorum circa ltatisbonam indigcnorum. Regens. 1769. 3 vols. 4to. RISE AND PROGRESS OF ZOOLOGY. 49 containing many new genera, not to be found in Linnaeus ; yet the characters are short and unsatisfactory ; and, strange to say, he nowhere uses specific names. Schseffer was a clergyman of Ratisbon, and lived to the age of seventy-two; but, although industrious, his abilities were very moderate. ) While entomology was thus advanced by describers and painters, the disciples of Linnseus were returning from their travels, and pouring into the lap of their master the innumerable novelties they had discovered in distant regions.

As the exposition of systematic details and of tables suits not with the nature of this sketch, we may at once pass from the patron to the protegee, and endeavour to form a just estimate of the real merits possessed by the third, though not perhaps the least, member of this zoological triumvirate. The life of Ray, unlike that of his friend, was protracted to a lengthened period; for he lived to the age of 77. The time, therefore, which he enjoyed for prosecuting his researches was nearly doubled: and hence he was enabled to expand them over a much wider field.

In his zoological works there is every indication of a powerful, comprehensive mind, while in his botanical writings * Maton's Life of Linnaus, pp. 500. 561 563. RISE AND PROGRESS OF ZOOLOGY. 35 we trace the spirit of a philosopher. The services he rendered natural history, at the time he wrote, were immense; nor will they ever be'forgotten. His unrivalled invention of nomenclature, which came from his hands, as it were, perfect, will remain of undiminished value so long as science exists; while the simplicity of those rules by which he arranged all the productions of nature then known, cannot be too closely imitated, however different may be the series in which these productions are disposed.

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