By Gerald Berk
Alternative Tracks offers a singular interpretation of industrialization and political improvement within the usa. concentrating on the serious case of railroads, Gerald Berk exhibits that substitute different types of financial association and governmental rules existed within the overdue 19th century. Constitutional offerings, now not technological imperatives or monetary pursuits, made up our minds the end result within the 20th century: a centralized regulated in accordance with liberal ideas of redistribution. Alternative Tracks unearths a nineteenth-century rival to this political economy―an both effective and extra democratic method of nearby railroads regulated in accordance with republican principles.
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Extra resources for Alternative Tracks: The Constitution of American Industrial Order, 1865-1917
Tom has a book and Mary has a book too. Tom has a book and Mary has a book too. Again. Tom has a book and Mary has a book too. The teacher then asked diﬀerent groups of children to read the sentence and then individuals. The sentences “Tom is reading his book and Mary is reading her book” and “Tom’s book is green and Mary’s book is green too” were read in the same manner. This is how these Standard 1 children were introduced to reading. They spent most of their reading time repeating pieces of the reading text after the teacher over and over again.
However, this has not been the case. European languages introduced to Africa through colonialism continue to be the key languages of education in Africa today. In the next section, I focus on Kenya as a case study of the colonial, postcolonial, socio-economic, and political processes that have led to the entrenchment of English in education and the marginalization of indigenous languages and the indigenous cultures that they embody before discussing the impacts that this has had on education. T H E K E N YA C A S E : S O C I O L I N G U I S T I C C O N T E X T There are four language categories in Kenya: African indigenous languages, of which there are over 40 (Abdulazizz, 1982); non-Kenyan languages, including Indo-Asiatic languages and European languages other than English; Kiswahili, Kenya’s national language; and, English, the oﬃcial language.
1991). Language and the nation: The language question in Sub-Sahara Africa. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Bodomo, A. B. ). On language and development in Africa: The case of Ghana. ID=19656. Brock-Utne, B. (2005). Language in education policies and practices in Africa with a special focus on Tanzania and South Africa – insights from research in progress. Y. Lin & P. M. ), Decolonisation, globalisation. Language-ineducation policy and practice (pp. 153–73). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.